Through my whole career and also during my studies I have always resorted to VirtualBox for my personal virtualization needs and VMWare for my customers’.
Qemu has been under my peripheral vision for a few years now but since I was always happy with VirtualBox I hadn’t really had a need to look somewhere else.
So, I’m still happy with VirtualBox but I now want to give Qemu a try, so here are my findings.
It seems like the fastest way to get started with qemu is from the command line, even though there are plenty of options out there to get a GUI running; however, I stopped being afraid of the terminal years ago so let’s just give this a go.
We first are going to need a disk image, somewhere to store our data once the VM is up & running unless, of course, we only want to run a “live” distro.
The command for creating a new disk image with qemu is the following:
$ qemu-img create [--object objectdef] [-q] [-f fmt] [-b backing_file] [-F backing_fmt] [-u] [-o options] filename [size]
Adapting it to our needs, we end up with this:
$ qemu-img create -f raw the-image.img 20G
Let’s take a look at the arguments:
-f rawspecifies the format that we want to give to this image. I have chosen
rawbecause it gives hte most performance and it suits my needs. Here in the documentation you can take a look at the rest of the image formats available for qemu
the-image.imgis simply the filename of our image
20Gis the size of the image
I have downloaded an ISO with ArchLinux in it but please feel free to use your favorite distro for this example.
$ qemu-system-x86_64 -m 1G -drive file=the-image.img,format=raw -boot d -cdrom archlinux.iso
Looking into the argumets passed to qemu, we see that
- We are assigning 1GB of RAM to the VM via the parameter
We are specifying the base disk via the
-driveparameter. The documentation shows in their example to simply pass the
-hdaparameter followed by the image name but in my case resulted in a warning saying the following:
WARNING: Image format was not specified for 'winxp.img' and probing guessed raw. Automatically detecting the format is dangerous for raw images, write operations on block 0 will be restricted. Specify the 'raw' format explicitly to remove the restrictions.
And it’s better to tackle warnings head-on.
-boot doption tells the virual machine to boot from the cdrom (
floppy (a), hard disk (c), CD-ROM (d), network (n))
-cdromoption tricks the virtual machine into thinking that
archlinux.isois the cdrom mounted in the system
That would be the end of it, actually. The networking part we can skip and qemu will by default assing a vNIC to the machine, bridged to the host and give it access to Internet, so you can get cracking right away.
Being used to the clicky workflow of VirtualBox, using qemu feels just a bit daunting in the beginning but it’s only from all the steps that one could think of when creating a virtual machine: assing CPUs, RAM, Networking, Storage, etc. and having to do all that from the console is, well, a bit of a pain. But all the pain is gone once you script the manual steps away.